Fotosintesis dan Respirasi

BASIC BIOLOGI II LAB WORK REPORT

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION

 

Arranged By:

          Oktiana Dwi Astuti               10315244002

            Alfatah Fathony                    10315244004

            Theresia Asmara Sejati         10315244007

              Ikhlasia Al-Afidah                 10315244008

              Amila Rizqi Wulan Utami     10315244009

YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY

MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE FACULTY

SCIENCE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

2011

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION

 A.    OBJECTIVE

  1. Photosynthesis

           To determine the relationship intensity with the rate of photosynthesis.

      2. Respiration

           To observe the changes in gas volume related to the consumption of oxygen.

B.     BACKGROUND

One of the characteristics living beings is respiration. Respiration is a process of liberation of energy stored in the material source of energy through a chemical process using oxygen. Respiration rate is influenced by temperature, age, type of living, weight, and the substrate contained. Respiration requires glucose and oxygen in the reaction, and the reaction will produce water, carbon dioxide and energy. The process of respiration in every living thing is different. In this lab that tested the process of respiration is the process of respiration in animals.

            A feature of life which only special by green plants is the ability to use carbon substances from the air to be converted into organic materials and assimilated in the plant body. Higher plants are generally classified on autotrophs organism, which is living things that can synthesize organic compounds that it needs. Raw organic compounds are carbon chains formed by the greenery of the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis or carbon assimilation is the process of conversion of inorganic substances H2O and CO2 by chlorophyll into carbohydrates organic substances with the help of light. The process of photosynthesis can only be done by the plants that have chlorophyll. This process will only happen if there is light and through the medium of the green leaf pigment chlorophyll found in chloroplasts.

Photosynthesis is a drafting process (anabolism or assimilation) in which energy is obtained from the light source and stored as chemical substances, in the process of photosynthesis occurs drafting simple substances into complex substances, while the process of respiration is a process of disassembly (catabolism or disasimilasi) where energy stored unloaded back to hold the process – the process of life, a complex substance converted into simpler substances. Many factors can affect the process of photosynthesis and respiration processes, both internal factors and external factors. To learn more about the process of photosynthesis and respiration processes we conduct experiments on plant photosynthesis and respiration in animals. The experiment was conducted with the objective to obtain objective results as well.

 C.    BASIC THEORY

        1. Photosynthesis

Plants, especially higher plants, to obtain food as a basic requirement in order to survive, plants must perform a process known as carbohydrate synthesis process that happens leaves a section that has kloropil plants, using sunlight. Sunlight is a source of energy needed for the process plant. Without the sun plants would not be able to make the process of photosynthesis, this is due kloropil which resides in the leaves can not use sunlight as kloropil will only function when there is sunlight (Dwidjoseputro, 1986)

Photosynthesis comes from photons which means light and synthesis means preparation. Thus photosynthesis is the process of preparation of organic substances H2O and CO2 into complex organic compounds that require light. Photosynthesis can occur only in plants that have chlorophyll, the pigment that serves as the capture sunlight energy (Kimball, 2002).

 Photosynthesis is known as a synthesis process food that is owned by green plants and some photosynthetic microorganisms. Organisms that can synthesize its own food called autotrophy organisms. Autotrophy occupy in the food chain as producers. In principle, the components needed in the reaction of photosynthesis is derived from air CO2 and H2O is absorbed from the soil. In addition to its name, photograph “light” reactions require sunlight as energy in the manufacture or synthesis products (sugar and oxygen compounds).

According to Stone (2004), photosynthesis reaction can be interpreted that six molecules karobondioksida and six water molecules react with the help of the sun’s light energy is converted into one glucose molecule and six molecules of oxygen. Glucose is a molecule that is formed as a result of the photosynthesis process in which stored the sun’s light energy conversion results in the form of chemical bonds making up the molecule. Glucose is a carbon compound that will be used along with other elements in the cell to form chemical compounds that are essential to the organism, such as DNA, proteins, sugars and fats. In addition, the organism can utilize the chemical energy stored in chemical bonds between atoms making up glucose as energy source in the processes in the body.

 Like other organisms, plants are composed of cells as the basic constituent unit of the plant life. Plant cells contain structures called chloroplasts (Chloroplast) which is the site of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are specialized organelles that are owned by the plants, oval-shaped and contain chlorophyll (chlorophyll), known as green leaf substance. All parts of plant which is a green-colored structure, including stems and fruits have chloroplasts in each cell constituent. But in general the activity of photosynthesis occurs in the leaves. Michael W. Davidson in his webset stated that the density of chloroplasts in the leaf surface a plant averages about one and a half million per square millimeter.

        In the 1860s, Sachs proved that photosynthesis produces starch. In these experiments he used the fresh leaves are partially wrapped in foil and then the leaves are boiled, put into alcohol and etched with iodine. He concluded that blue-black color on the leaves that are not covered in tinfoil sign of a starch (Malcome, 1990).

 Photosynthesis has two kinds of reactions, namely the light reaction and dark reaction. During the light reactions, chlorophyll along with other pigments in chloroplasts absorbs sunlight energy and converts it into chemical energy stored in chemical bonds of glucose constituent. The absorbed energy is the energy-rich electrons that will be involved in a series of chain reactions called the electron transport.

According to Stone (2004), the water via light reaction will be split (photolysis) into protons, electrons and O2. Protons and electrons produced from the breakdown of a compound are joined by electron aseptor NADP + (nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate) to form NADPH. Some of the protons move through the chloroplast membrane, and energy that established the form of ATP (Adenosine triphospat). NADPH and ATP are the components that go into the dark reaction (Calvin cycle), the change of CO2 molecules into a chain of sugar molecules karobon three. chemical energy converted from solar light energy is stored in carbon compounds.

Carbohydrates are carbon compounds found in nature as complex and large molecules. Carbohydrates are very diverse examples such as sucrose, monosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates. Monosaccharides can be bound together to form dimers, trimers and others. Dimer is a mixture of two monosaccharides and the trimer composed of three monosaccharides (Kimball, 2002).

         2. Respiration

Respiration is the process of decomposition of food that produces energy. Respiration is carried out by all the constituent body, either the cells of plants and animals or human cells. Respiration is carried out both day and night (Syamsuri, 1980).

 As we know in all activities of living things require energy, plants also. Respiration occurs in all parts of a plant, at a high level of plant respiration occurs in both the roots, stems and leaves and chemically on the aerobic respiration of carbohydrates (glucose) is the opposite of photosynthesis. On the respiration of glucose by oxygen combustion energy it produces. Because of all parts of the plant is composed of a network and a network composed of cells, then the respiration occur in cells (Jasin, 1989).

The content of catalysts called enzymes is essential for the reaction cycle of respiration (as well as possible the process of respiration). Some chemical reactions allow mixing with less function of enzymes by combining with its active side. Use will be seen the results on the inhibitors of the enzyme activity (Mertens, 1966).

The respiratory system is gas exchange of O2 and CO2 in the body of organisms and aims to get energy. Respiration tools on a variety of different animals. In lower animals direct O2 diffuses through the surface of the body, the insect is the trachea, lung scorpion with books, with the gills of fish, frog with lungs, skin and oral cavity, reptiles with lungs, etc. (Primagama guide).

Respiration also occurs in humans is called respiration. The process of inhaling oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. Respiration in humans may have a disorder such as acute respiratory tract infections or also called (ARI), this is one health problem in Indonesia because of the high incidence of respiratory infection, especially among children under five. Can be used to prevent sanitary houses, namely the public health effort that focuses on the supervision of a physical structure, in which people use as a shelter that affect human health. Facilities include ventilation, temperature, humidity, solid occupancy, daylighting, building construction, means of disposal of garbage, human waste disposal facilities and water supply (Nindya, sulistyorini, 2005).

 Reviewed from his need for oxygen, respiration can be divided into two kinds:

  1. Aerobic respiration (aerobic)

Aerobic respiration is respiration that uses oxygen-free oxygen to get energy. Equation for aerobic respiration process can be simply written:

C6H12O+ 6H2O >> 6H2O + 6CO+ 675 kal

In fact the reaction is not that simple. Many stages that occur from the beginning to the formation of energy. These reactions can be divided into three stages namely glycolysis, Krebs cycle and electron transport (Syamsuri, 1980).

        1. glycolysis
The word “glycolysis” means “to decipher the sugar” and that’s exactly what happened during this pathway. Glucose, a six carbon sugar, is broken down into two three-carbon sugar. Smaller sugars are then oxidized, and the remaining atoms rearranged to make two molecules of pyruvate (champbell, 2002)
NADH is a source of high-energy electrons, whereas ATP is a high-energy compounds. During glycolysis, four ATP molecules produced, but the two molecules of ATP re-use them for the course of other reactions so that the remaining 2 molecules of ATP that is ready for the body. The whole process of glycolysis does not require oxygen. Glycolysis reaction occurs in the cytoplasm (excluding mitochondria). The final result before entering the Krebs cycle is pyruvic acid. There is what distinguishes this stage into two, namely glycolysis and oxidative dekarbosilasi. Glycolysis convert compounds into compounds 2C 6C at the end of glycolysis. What is meant dekarbosilasi oxidative reaction is converted pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA (Syamsuri, 1980)

        2. Siklus krebs

Glycolysis is less than a quarter of the energy release of chemical energy stored in glucose, most of that energy remains stored in the two molecules piruvet. If there is molecular oxygen, pyruvate enters the mitochondrion where the Krebs cycle enzymes enhance the oxidation of organic fuels (champbell, 2002)

Entering the Krebs cycle, acetyl CoA is reacted with oxaloacetic acid (4C) to pyruvic acid (6C). oxaloacetic acid enters the next cycle of a variety of substances that eventually became oksalosuksinat acid. In his journey, 1C (CO2) is released. At each stage, the energy released in the form of ATP and hydrogen. ATP produced can be used directly. In contrast, hydrogen energy is combined with hydrogen receiver NAD and FAD, to be brought into the electron transport system. In this stage energy is released, and hydrogen react with oxygen to form water. The whole reaction takes place with the Krebs cycle require free oxygen (aerobic). Krebs cycle takes place within the mitochondria (Syamsuri, 1980).

      3. Electron Transport System

The energy is formed from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle events are of two kinds. First in the form of high-energy phosphate bond, ATP or GTP (Guanine Tripospat). This energy is energy that can instantly ready to use. Both in the form of electron transport, namely NADH (Nicotine Adenine Dinokleutida) and FAD (Flafin adenine dinucleotide) in the form of FADH2. Both kinds of electron sources is brought kesistem electron transfer. Electron transfer process is very complex, in essence, electrons and H + and NADH and FADH2 subtract carried from one to another in sequence subtract. Whenever moved, the energy released is used to bind inorganic phosphate (P) to ADP to form ATPmolecules. At the end there as the recipient of oxygen, forming H2O. a glucose catabolism via aerobic respiration produces 3 ATP. Each reaction in glycolysis, Krebs cycle and electron transport resulting compounds – compounds between. The compound was used ingredients anabolism (Syamsuri, 1980).

  1. Anaerobic respiration (Anaerobic)

Anaerobic respiration is the reaction of the breakdown of carbohydrates to get energy without using oxygen. Anaerobic respiration using certain compounds such as pyruvic acid or acetal fosfoenol dehida, so that hydrogen bonding and form lactic acid or alcohol. Anaerobic respiration occurs in tissues that lack of oxygen, will plant submerged in water, seeds – seeds that are difficult to penetrate thick skin of oxygen, the cells – the cells of yeast and anaerobic bacteria. Raw material in fermentation anaerobic respiration is glucose. In addition to glucose, raw materials such as fructose, galactose and malosa also be converted into alcohol. The end result is the alcohol, carbon dioxide and energy. Glucose is not a complete break down into water and carbon dioxide, produced less energy than aerobic respiration. Its reaction:

C6H12O6 Yeast>> 2CO2 + + 2C2H5OH 21Kal

From the equation it is seen that oxygen is not required. Even the anaerobic bacteria such as clostridium tetani (causes tetanus) can not live if it relates to free air. Tetanus infection can occur if the wound is closed so that the members the possibility of bacteria added fertile (Syamsuri, 1980). The rate of metabolism is the total amount of energy produced and used by the body per unit time (Seeley, 2002).

The rate of metabolism is closely related to respiration due to respiration is the process of extracting energy from food molecules that depend on the presence of oxygen. Simply put, the chemical reactions that occur in respiration can be written as follows: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → CO2 + 6H2O + 6 ATP (Tobin, 2005)

The rate of metabolism is usually estimated by measuring the amount of oxygen consumed per unit time living. This is possible because the oxidation of foodstuffs requires oxygen (in an amount unknown) to generate energy that can be known amount. However, the rate of metabolism is usually fairly expressed in the form of the rate of oxygen consumption. Some factors that affect the rate of oxygen consumption, among others, temperature, animal species, body size, and activities. The rate of oxygen consumption can be determined in various ways, including by using microrespirometer, Winkler method, and Scholander respirometer.

The use of each method is based on the type of animal to be measured oxygen consumption rate. Mikrorespirometer used to measure the oxygen consumption of small animals such as insects or spiders. Winkler method is a way to determine the amount of oxygen dissolved in water (Anonymous, wikipedia.org).
In this method, the levels of oxygen in water are determined by titration. Titration is the addition of a solution of known concentration (standard solution) into another solution of unknown concentration gradually until equilibrium (Chang, 1996).
With Wingkler method, we can know the number of oxygen consumed by aquatic animals such as fish. Scholander respirometer used for measuring the rate of oxygen consumption of animals such as frogs or mice. This tool consists of a syringe, manometer, the tube specimen and control tubes.

Rice
Rice is a Graminae plant belonging to the genus Oryza Linn. There are two kinds of commonly planted species, ie species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrina Linn. Species Oryza sativa Linn is the type species widely planted in various parts of the world, while the rice species Oryza glaberrina is commonly grown in specific small areas in West Africa (Grist, 1959).

Rice alone in biology is the grain which consists of

  • aleurone, the outermost layer which often go wasted in the process of separation of the skin,
  • endosperm, where most of the rice starch and protein are located, and
  • embryo, which is a new crop of candidates (in rice can not grow anymore, except with the help of tissue culture techniques). In everyday language, called the eye of rice embryo.Like other cereal grains, greatest part is dominated by rice starch (approximately 80-85%). Rice also contains protein, vitamins (especially in the aleurone), minerals, and water.

Rice starch carbohydrate polymer composed of two:

  • amylose, starches with unbranched structure.
  • amylopectin, starch with branched structures and tend to be sticky

Comparison of starch composition of both groups are largely determine the color (transparent or not) and the texture of the rice (sticky, soft, hard, or Pera). Sticky rice is almost entirely dominated by amylopectin so it is very sticky, while rice Pera has amylose content exceeding 20% which makes the rice grains scattered (not sticking) and hard. (Http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beras).

CRICKET
Scientific Classification:

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Orthoptera

Upaordo: Ensifera

Superfamily: Grylloidea

Family: Gryllidae Bolívar

Crickets (Gryllidae) is an insect closely related to grasshoppers, have flat bodies and long antennae. Crickets are omnivores, known by his voice that only produced by male crickets. These sounds are used to attract females and other males refused. Crickets sound is growing louder with the increase in ambient temperature. In the world known about 900 species of crickets, including the digger.

D.    TOOLS AND MATERIALS

Photosynthesis

       1. Glass beaker (1 liter)

       2. Test tube

      3. Glass funnel

      4. Hydrilla plants

      5. Water

      6. Wire

Respiration

     1. Respirometer

  2. Object/ speciment (small organism, example: grasshopper, cicada,   cockcroach, ant, flies; seeds, germinating seeds, small plant)

     3. Cotton

     4. KOH (solid or solution 10%)

    5. Stain or Aquadest (eosin)

   6. Vaselin

E.     PROCEDURES

Photosynthesis

  1. Make a tool as shown (for two rafts).
  2. Place a raft in a plac e subject to direct light and other assemblies in space.
  3. Let stand for 20 minutes. Then observe the precence or absence of bubbles in the reaction tube. If all there is, compared to the assembly which generated more bubblesof gas? Gas is it?
  4. Enter the amount of data measurement (volume) of air bubbles in the following table.
Respiration

Respirometer consist of two components: (1) bottle vial to place objects, and (2) cover bottle with a cappilary tube.

Preparation:

  • If using KOH liquid: Place absorbant cotton in the bottom of the bottle vial, and then drops KOH with a pipette. Give a none absorvant cotton as a barrier to keep the object.
  •  If using solid KOH: wrap KOH with cotton, then insert it into the vial bottle.

Step:

  1. Weigh the object to be observed (e.g : 2 g seeds); enter into the vial bottle, and then covered with a cover-bottle.
  2. Both components of the appliance should be tightly or airtight. Use vaseline or plasticine on a connection.
  3. Squirt eosin at the end of the capillary tube using a syringe. Be careful, do not let eosin absorbed out of the pipe.
  4. Observe the movement of eosin every minute. Write on the table. If the surface liquid down the positive value and if the water level rises then the value is negative reading methode: at the bottom of the meniscus. Calculate the speed of respiration by measuring the liquid volume in the pipette (allows you to measure the rate of respiration).
  5. After eosin vial into the bottle, clean the respirometer.
  6. Repeat treatment with another object.

 

F.     Observation Result

            a.      Photosynthesis

 

Kelompok

Tempat

Massa

10 menit

20 menit

1

Bercahaya

5,0163 gram

667 gelembung

1187 gelembung

4

Teduh

5,08 gram

4 gelembung

9         gelembung

         b.      Respiration

            1. Observation result of crickerts respiration:

Minutes

Scale position of eosin (distance) (cm)

1

1.7

2

3.4

3

5.1

4

6.8

5

8.5

6

9.4

7

10.6

8

11.5

9

12.9

10

13.5

11

14.2

12

15.4

13

16.9

14

17.9

15

18.9

16

19.8

17

20.6

18

21.3

19

21.9

20

22.7

21

23.1

22

23.4

23

23.7

24

24.2

25

24.9

 

velocity =distance ⁄ time = 24,9 cm ⁄ menit = 0,99 cm/menit

     2. Observation result of rice respiration:

Minutes

Scale position of eosin (distance) (cm)

1

1.8

2

4

3

5.2

4

5.8

5

6.8

6

7.3

7

7.8

8

8.3

9

9.6

10

8.8

                                    Weigh of rice  = 5 gram

                                    Velocity =  = /minute.

G.    DISCUSSION

 a.      Photosynthesis

Reactions of photosynthesis in plants requires chlorophyll, light, and carbon dioxide. Without light, plants are difficult to carry out photosynthesis. In order to obtain optimal results choose light plants having a specific wavelength.
According to data from experiments Ingenhousz above, the oxygen gas bubbles produced in a place exposed to the sun will be more. The reason is that when chlorophyll is exposed to light, the chlorophyll will catch it and use it in the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis begins when light ionizes the chlorophyll molecules in photosystem II, making it release electrons to be transferred along the electron transport chain. The energy of the electrons is used for photophosphorylation which produces ATP. Photosystem II reaction causes a deficit or deficiency of electrons must be replaced immediately. In plants and algae, the electron deficiency is filled by electrons from the ionization of water that occurs simultaneously with the ionization of chlorophyll. The results of this are the electron ionization of water and oxygen.

As already mentioned in the basic theory that the determinants of the rate of photosynthesis include light intensity, the concentration of carbon dioxide, temperature, moisture content, levels of fotosintat (of photosynthesis), and growth stage. In this experiment aims to determine the relationship of light intensity with the rate of photosynthesis. To be able to determine the relationship between the two used water plant Hydrilla verticillata.

Hydrilla verticillata first placed in a glass beaker under the funnel whose tip is placed an inverted test tube, then a glass beaker that already contain Hydrilla is filled with water until full. Glass beaker containing Hydrilla is placed at two different levels of light, which one was in a place exposed to direct sunlight and the other is not exposed to direct sunlight. It aims to determine the production of bubbles produced by each of Hydrilla. Are there differences in the number of bubbles generated or not. Observation of each glass is done every ten minutes twice.

The variables used in these experiments include: the control variables as much as five grams of Hydrilla plants with broken stalks Hydrilla is right at the mouth of the funnel. The independent variable is the intensity of light (exposed to light directly and not), and the dependent variable is the number of bubbles generated production.

The results obtained from our group that is in the first ten minutes of the bubble is a bubble 667, and at 10 minutes both the number of the bubble is a bubble in 1187. While the results of observations of a group of four that put theirs on the shade assembly of the first 10 minutes of the bubble and the bubble is 4 on 10 minutes the second is 9 bubbles.

The resulting air bubble indicates that the process of photosynthesis in Hydrilla verticilata produce oxygen. Based on the results of the observation data shows that Hydrilla plants are put in place a more luminous produce bubbles, while Hydrilla is in put in the shade and not exposed to sunlight produces fewer bubbles. This proves that the intensity of light affect the photosynthesis process. The optimum light intensity is very good for the process of photosynthesis, in contrast with the light intensity is too low or too high can hamper the process of photosynthesis.

b.      Respiration

Respiration experiment was conducted on Tuesday, 10 May 2011 at the Laboratory of Basic Biology, Mathematics and Natural Sciences UNY. The purpose of this experiment is to observe changes in the volume of gas associated with the consumption of oxygen. In this experiment in the use of tools and materials such as respirometer, crickets, rice, cotton, Koh solution, aquades, vaseline, and the balance for weighing. In this experiment we conducted experiments on animal and plant respiration. On the respiration of animals, we use crickets as lab materials. While at our plant respiration using rice as a practicum. Respiration is a process of liberation of energy stored in the material source of energy through a chemical process using oxygen. Simply put, the chemical reactions that occur in respiration can be written as follows:

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → CO2 + 6H2O + 6 ATP

In this experiment we observed the rate of metabolism. The rate of metabolism is the total amount of energy produced and used by the body per unit time. The rate of metabolism is usually estimated by measuring the amount of oxygen consumed per unit time living. This is possible because the oxidation of foodstuffs requires oxygen (in an amount unknown) to generate energy that can be known amount. However, the rate of metabolism is usually fairly expressed in the form of the rate of oxygen consumption.

Some factors that affect the rate of oxygen consumption, among others, temperature, animal species, body size, and activities. The rate of oxygen consumption can be determined in various ways, including by using mikrorespirometer, Winkler method, and Scholander respirometer. In this experiment used a solution of KOH, the function of this solution is to bind CO2. The reaction between KOH with CO 2 is as follows:

KOH + K2CO3 + H2O → CO2

The first activity we did was observe repirasi on crickets. Scientific classification crickets are:

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Orthoptera

Upaordo: Ensifera

Superfamily: Grylloidea

Family: Gryllidae Bolívar

Animal respiration mechanism of crickets that funnel air (trachea) is a respiratory equipment owned by the insects and other arthropods. Tracheal vessels lead to small holes that exist dikerangka outside (exoskeleton), called spiracles. Spiracles layered cylindrical-shaped vessels substance chitin, which is located in pairs on each sekmen body. Spiracles have a lid that is controlled by the muscles that open and closed spiracles occur regularly. Generally insect spiracles open during flight, and closes when resting. Oxygen from the outside in through the spiracles. Then the air from the spiracles to the vessels – vessels and subsequent tracheal tracheal vessels branching again into fine branches called trakeolus. So it can reach all tissues and organs inside. Trakeolus no chitin-coated, filled with liquid and is formed by cells called trakeoblas. Trakeolus gas exchange occurs between the cells – the cells of the body. Trakeolus has the same function as capillaries. In the transport system in vertebrates. Respiratory mechanisms in insects, eg locusts is if your stomach muscles to contract the trachea menyerpi crickets so that the CO2-rich air out. Conversely, if the abdominal muscles to contract the trachea cricket back to its original volume. So that the air pressure becomes smaller than the outside pressure as a result of oxygen-rich air outside into the trachea, the tracheal system serves to transport oxygen and circulate throughout the body, otherwise transporting the carbon dioxide released in the body of respiration. Thus, the blood on the insect only serves to transport nutrients and gas transport. At the end there is a liquid so that air trakeolus easily diffuse into the network.

Steps taken in this experiment is to put 10 drops of KOH solution into the tube respirometer that has given cotton and then put cricket into the respirometer tube, and then cover them with caps.

Both components of the tool should be meeting or airtight, for vaseline or clay that is used in connection (caps). Slowly, eosin spray at the tip of the capillary tube using a syringe and observe the movement of eosin every 1 minute.

 After performing the experiment, the data we can from the respiration of crickets that takes 25 minutes to reach a distance of 24.9 cm. So that its metabolic rate is 0.99 cm / min. The results obtained from comparison with the time required distance.

Next we observe respiration in plants (rice). Rice is the grain (grain) which has been separated from the chaff. Chaff (straw Java) are anatomically called ‘Palea’ (part covered) and the ‘lemma’ (the cover). The biggest part is dominated by rice starch (approximately 80-85%). Rice also contains protein, vitamins (especially in the aleurone), minerals, and water. Rice starch carbohydrate polymer composed of two:

  • amylose, starches with unbranched structure
  • amylopectin, starch with branched structures and tend to be sticky

Rice that we use weighs 5 grams. Step in this experiment is put 10 drops of KOH solution into the tube respirometer that has given cotton and then put the rice into the respirometer tube, and then close it with a bottle-cover.
Both components of the tool should be meeting or airtight, for vaseline or clay that is used on the connection. Slowly, eosin spray at the tip of the capillary tube using a syringe and observe the movement of eosin every 1 minute.

After performing the experiment results we obtained are:

Menit ke-

Jarak (cm)

1

1.8

2

4

3

5.2

4

5.8

5

6.8

6

7.3

7

7.8

8

8.3

9

9.6

10

8.8

From the data obtained its metabolic rate is 0.88 cm / min. The results obtained from the comparison between the distance with the time required.
The rate of respiration in plants is influenced by temperature, plant age, plant type, weight, and the substrate contained. As is well known that respiration requires glucose in the reaction, the greater the glucose that exist in plants is the energy that is generated will be greater, and respirasinya rate will increase.

H.    CONCLUTION

Based on experiments that have been done can be concluded that:

  1. photosynthesis
  1.  One factor that greatly affects the rate of photosynthesis in one of them is the intensity of light.
  2. In the process of photosynthesis takes water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide.
  3. The process of photosynthesis will be more effective in direct sunlight conditions.
  4. Direction of light to be precise so that the rate of photosynthesis is not compromised.
  5. The bubbles produced in a place exposed to sunlight in Hydrilla plants more than in the shade, it signifies the process of photosynthesis takes place more quickly.
  6. Respiration rate of crickets was 0.99 cm / min.
  7. Respiration rate of rice is 0.88 cm / min.
  8. Respiration rate is influenced by temperature, weight, age, oxygen availability, substrate availability.
  1. RespirationREFERENCE

 

Dwidjoseputro. 1986. Biologi. Erlangga: Jakarta.

Kimball, J. W. 1993. Biologi Umum. Erlangga: Jakarta.

Kimball, J.W. 2002. Fisiologi Tumbuhan. Erlangga: Jakarta.

Malcome. B. W. 1990.Fisiologi Tanaman. Bumi Aksara: Bandung.

Simbolon, Hubu dkk. 1989. Biologi Jilid 3. Erlangga: Jakarta.

Syamsuri,  I. 2000. Biologi. Erlangga: Jakarta.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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